Thursday, 8 October 2015

Short Essays On Rural Oaxaca Mezcal Production - Part One, Focus on Hilarino Olivera Cruz

The rural mezcal producers of Oaxaca keep the tradition as pure as it was centuries ago. They pepper the villages and roadsides where tourists rarely venture. Their operations are a far cry from those of Benevá, Oro de Oaxaca, the brands of the Chagoya family, and the few designer labels vying with one another to corner the Manhattan sipping market.
Hilarino Olivera Cruz has a small fábrica de mezcal (mezcal "factory") near his hometown village of San Lorenzo Albarradas, about an hour and a quarter drive from the city of Oaxaca, en route to Hierve el Agua. But he and his wife María Sara don't just produce mezcal. They can't afford to rely on distilling alone to eke out their modest, working class existence. Out of the same premises they operate a tiny restaurant, El Tigre, without the benefit of electricity, employing their daughter-in-law Alma; María Sara also has a door-to-door Avon-style sales business from which she earns perhaps $50 or $70 a month; Hilarino together with their eldest son Claudio, Alma's husband, run a dump truck; and as is the custom with most craft-producing and other cottage industry families, they have their fields of milpa to tend, yielding corn for making tortillas, tamales and like products used to provide for personal consumption, and in the case of the Olivera family, also for restaurant use.
On the one hand hard working mezcaleros such as Hilarino are not permitted to export commercially, since they are not members of the regulatory body known as COMERCAM, yet on the other they struggle to maintain the artisanal, or pure, traditional hands-on nature of production, and resist the adulteration of their spirit through modern processing methods including the use of chemical additives ... for everyone's benefit.
You won't find Hilarino flogging his mezcal in downtown Oaxaca with the aid of heavily made-up, attractive, smiling teenage girls offering free tastings. Nor will you encounter him when taking a Sunday tour bus to Mitla or Tlacolula, and sauntering up to a fine oak bar for samples of cremas (sweet, mezcal-based products), jovens (un-aged mezcal) or what's represented to be five or ten-year-old añejos. The photo op that's provided will appear quaint enough, but won't come close to revealing the true history of the tradition, or the present reality of the struggle of the rural producer.
Hilarino's market is not the tourist trade, but rather residents of Oaxaca, Mitla, the nearby Mixe region, and of course his own community. The same as it was for his great-grandparents: "I remember the stories my parents and grandparents would tell, about how it actually was way back then," Hilarino reveals. "They were campesinos. They would harvest mainly wild agave known as tobalá. A caravan would set out, comprised of perhaps 10 or 15 mules or donkeys and an equal number of people helping out. Cousins, aunts and uncles would organize themselves and take the mezcal on what would be like a trade route, in pottery or metal receptacles, down into the valley and up throughout the mountains. Each animal would carry 3 containers, one on each side and another on top. My relatives would be gone for anywhere between a couple of days and two weeks, often returning home with 2 or 3 less mules ... that's how hard the journey was. Of course now it's much easier."
Easier is a relative term. Then it took two or three days to pulverize the baked agave prior to fermentation, hammering it with a wooden mallet made of tree burl. Now it's crushed by a horse or mule reluctantly pulling a multi-ton limestone wheel over it for a couple of hours, persuaded with the assistance of a crop-like piece of leather, or simply a stick ... and then it's time for the next batch.
Hilarino began learning how to make mezcal when he was about seven years old. Out of economic necessity he moved with his family to Mexico City at age 11, and remained there for the next 15 years. Upon return to Oaxaca some 14 years ago he built and opened his current facility, the mezcal operation with adjoining eatery. Initially his father worked the business with him, but about four years ago the elder Olivera opened up his own restaurant beside his son's, and since then they've been competitors of sorts. Hilarino explains: "But my father can't produce mezcal on his own, since I'm the one with the equipment (clay and brick still with copper attachments, pine fermenting vats, limestone wheel and ring for crushing, and beast of burden), so when he has a batch of agave he wants to process, we work out an arrangement for him to use my production facility." In fact one of Hilarino's brothers does the same thing, buying agave and renting Hilarino's premises to produce, and then selling to his own customers. Occasionally others from the village make similar arrangements with him.

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Wednesday, 7 October 2015

The Importance of Nursing in Healthcare

Nursing is one of vital elements of the healthcare profession and it is a comprehensive one that caters to various aspects of patient care. Nursing practice is defined by scope of practice, which is laid down by the country or area in which the nurse is practicing. Due to unprecedented growth in the healthcare sector around the world, a large number of nursing staff is needed across the globe.
A registered nurse (RN) uses the guidelines laid down to assess patient needs and to provide them with appropriate care. He or she is responsible for checking vital signs, such as patient heart beat, temperature and vital signs. The RN is responsible or ensuring that the patient takes correct medication and administers injections, takes blood and urine samples for the purpose of tests. They are often seen to have a bachelor degrees or associate degrees in nursing. In the United States, they form the largest group of healthcare workers coming to about 2.6 million. Their roles are very diverse, so they are not limited to just administering patient care. They have to look into activities such as strategic planning, respond to emergencies, write out healthcare policies, and even take on the role of technical and ancillary staff. There are various types of certifications that they can obtain such as a CCRN, NCSN, OCN, and WOCN.
Nurses are held responsible for all the activities that they carry out in their practice. They take care of people belonging to all are groups and cultural backgrounds. The process of providing nurse caring is a combination of nursing theory, technology, social science and physical science. The major divisions in nursing are pediatric nursing, geriatric nursing, live-in nurse, mental health, learning disability and acute care nursing. Other areas of specialization are orthopedic nursing, palliative care, perioperative, oncology and cardiac nursing.
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Research Paper About Depression

Depression is a common disease affecting people from all ethnic groups, ages and professions. It is caused by the unbalanced chemicals in brain called "neurotransmitters". It is diseases which cause you to feel sad and gloomy and create a feeling of hopelessness about future. This feeling prohibit the person suffering from it to enjoy his routine life, hobbies and things which he loves to do normally. The most common problem about depression is that many people leave it unnoticed and untreated. Some people are ashamed of having depression just because they do not want their weak point to get exposed in front of others. People with little knowledge of depression take it as a normal mood swing but it is not. This feeling of sadness or despair is not normal as it does not go away or come with normal incidents that are meant to cause these reflexes. A person may get depressed even when there is no reason of being sad.
People suffering from depression say that "it is a black curtain of despair coming down over their lives" ( This feeling of worthlessness and despair often takes the patient to a point of no return where he could only think about ending the worthless life by committing suicide.
The disease is directly associated to unbalanced chemicals present in the brain. The human brain is a gigantic messaging system which controls everything from heat beat to the breathing, skin functions, organ working and reflexes. The brain is made of millions of nerve cells called neurons. These neurons send and receive messages from rest of your body through neurotransmitters present in the brain. These brain cells are responsible for emotional states of human being. When an unbalanced chemical reaction occurs in the brain cells the messages are not delivered correctly and disrupt the communication resulting in causing depression.
A person having depression feels sadness, helplessness and worthlessness. Some authors says that feeling depressed or in a low mood increase the ability of a person to cope with tough situations. Depression may happen in life as a normal phase when it is backed by certain types of life occurrences like sudden death of a loved one, divorce, loss of status or death of spouse child. Depression may be an aftereffect of any disease like influenza or flue.
Depression may also be due to some psychiatrist disorders like Bipolar Disorder, Anorexia Nervosa, and Bulimia Nervosa etc. Symptoms of psychological disorders are dullness, chronic sadness never seems to end, obsession, shakiness when feeling most down and mood swings. The cure to psychological disorders is constant therapy and responding to the disease well in time.
As mentioned earlier most of the people do not know that they have been suffering from depression. This is due to lack of information about this common problem amongst people. The first thing is to identify whether you have depression or not. The next phase is to get to a physician. In case of depression both the things are difficult for a person who is suffering from the disease. This is because the patient is already down in mood and is never ready to rectify any wrong done to him. The patient is already having sad feelings about himself which forbid him to take any measures to get to solution. This worthless feeling if not identified well in time can push a person to end his life. In some cases the patient often get irritated to that extent that he never hesitates to harm those who he love the most and this is done under the immense pressure of depression that a person feel upon himself. It is like no dawn forever and no way out. The second phase is how to get out of depression when you have done diagnosing that you actually have depression. This phase is easy for some people and is extremely difficult for some people. In such case it is the collective responsibility of the family members or relations of the person to convince him to visit a doctor.
People suffering from depression need sympathy and need extra attention from those who are around them. This is kept in mind that in today's hectic world where everything is traveling very fast, a struggle between individuals to reach the top has created things worse. The fight for needs is converted into fight for wants which is creating unwanted problems for the society. In such case depression is becoming a global issue which is affecting every social group of every race and ethnicity. The solution for the problem is addressing the problem before it becomes a serious problem. Adopting healthy and natural life styles, living close to the nature and by avoiding unnecessary and complex life styles can reduce the problem of depression.
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Arousing Interests of Science Subjects in Secondary Schools in Tanzania

Motivating young people to become more interested in science subjects in Tanzania raised the debate since the government decided to exercise authority in education sector at take-off independence. The driving un-implemented strategies are restructuring instruction into learner-centered approach, improving curricular materials and ensuring teaching and instructional personnel. There is no way to a single theory to govern this paper rather than eclectic approach being employed to help to draw-in important philosophical concept to the intended perspective.
The theories adopted in guiding this paper therefore are observed in how motivation can be employed in arousing learners' interest in science subjects. The theories include motivation as propounded by prominent behaviorist Abraham Maslow, learning theory by prominent constructivist paradigm including Piaget and Vygotsky and the theory of social cognition by its prominent proponent Albert Bandura.
As Maslow (1954) says, "If we are interested in what actually motivates us and not what has or will, or might motivate us, then a satisfied need is not a motivator." According to him and to other various theories, motivation may be rooted in the basic need to minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure, or it may include specific needs such as eating and resting, or a desired object, hobby, goal, state of being, ideal, or it may be attributed to less-apparent reasons such as altruism, morality, or avoiding mortality. Motivation is of particular interest to Educational psychologists because of the crucial role it plays in student learning. However, the specific kind of motivation that is studied in the specialized setting of education differs qualitatively from the more general forms of motivation studied by psychologists in other fields. Motivation in education can have several effects on how students learn and how they behave towards subject matter as for science subjects in our case. It can direct behavior toward particular goals; Lead to increased effort and energy; Increase initiation of, and persistence in, activities; Enhance cognitive processing; Determine what consequences are reinforcing and; Lead to improved performance. Because students are not always internally motivated, they sometimes need situated motivation, which is found in environmental conditions that the teacher creates.
There are two kinds of motivation: firstly, intrinsic motivation which occurs when people are internally motivated to do something because it either brings them pleasure, they think it is important, or they feel that what they are learning is significant, and secondly extrinsic motivation which comes into play when a student is compelled to do something or act a certain way because of factors external to him or her like money or good grades (Wikipedia, 2008). Young people can be motivated to perform science subjects as pleasure when they are supplied with quality, enough materials and sufficient facilitating situation through competition, science clubs, and any other situations where awards and prizes are provided for best achievers. Externally successfully scientists and best students in science subjects can be invited in science celebrations and exhibitions to demonstrate their achievements.
There are cognitive views of motivation by constructivists which stress that human behavior is influenced by the way people think about themselves and their environment. The direction that behavior takes can be explained by four influences which include; the inherent need to construct an organized and logically consistent knowledge base; one's expectations for successfully completing a task; the factors that one believes account for success and failure; and one's beliefs about the nature of cognitive ability (Biehler/Snowman, 1997). The impact of cognitive development view is based on Jean Piaget's principles of equilibration, assimilation, accommodation, and schema formation. Piaget proposes that children possess an inherent desire to maintain a sense of organization and balance in their conception of the world (equilibration). A sense of equilibration may be experienced if a child assimilates a new experience by relating it to an existing scheme, or the child may accommodate by modifying an existing scheme if the new experience is too different. In our case then love of science can be build to young people since their childhood through directing and provision of simpler experiments and observations on various matters and organisms.
In addition, individuals will repeatedly use new schemes because of an inherent desire to master their environment. This explains why young children can, with no loss of enthusiasm, sing the same song, tell the same story, and play the same game over and over and why they repeatedly open and shut doors to rooms and cupboards with no seeming purpose. It also explains why older children take great delight in collecting and organizing almost everything they can get their hands on and why adolescents who have begun to attain formal operational thinking will argue incessantly about all the unfairness in the world and how it can be eliminated (Stipek, 1993). This allows the room for these habits to be turned into science learning and observation interests.
Social cognition theory proposes reciprocal determination as a primary factor in both learning and motivation. In this view, the environment, an individual's behavior, and the individual's characteristics (e.g., knowledge, emotions, and cognitive development) both influence and are influenced by each other two components. Bandura (1986, 1997) highlights self-efficacy (the belief that a particular action say for science [as our case goals], is possible and that the individual can accomplish it) and self-regulation (the establishment of goals, the development of a plan to attain those goals, the commitment to implement that plan, the actual implementation of the plan, and subsequent actions of reflection and modification or redirection.
The first strategy is to deal with the policy effective implementation. Tanzania education policy (Education and Training Policy - ETP) highlights on: Access that encompass participation, gender and equity issues; Quality in internal efficiency, relevance and external effectiveness; and Management includes governance, decentralization and resource management. It is one of the best policies in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) as pointed by World Bank (2005); with well established strategic plans but had not yet been able to be implemented effectively.
Woods (2007) pointed out that the education system of Tanzania has made commendable progress in the period since 2000, especially in the introduction of free primary education, in steps taken to broaden access to secondary, and in the introduction of competence based curricula at primary and secondary levels. However, there are still challenges to improve system performance in terms of inclusion, repetition and completion at primary level, and to expand opportunity at secondary from the previously very low base. Pre-service and in-service training have lacked the necessary coherence with each other and with the demands of changes in the system, especially of curriculum and pedagogy in enhancing science and technology. Particular attention needs to be paid to equity and strengthening of financial management and mainstreaming of ongoing project and programs. These need to be pursued vigorously and implemented fully. A prioritized strategy for capacity building is required for these and all other major dimensions (World Bank, 2005). In this case there is no problem with the policy; the problem is in the implementation.
In enabling the Ministry to meet the goals the question of teachers concern should be addressed as the second strategy as the foremost activities to motivate teaching resource. Teaching resource elsewhere plays the big role in ensuring maximum success in education arena. Recognizing the unique motivational styles can also help to identify the types of educational products and problems that will satisfy respective needs (Tough, 1979). So, teachers' in-service training, teaching environment nourishment, reasonable payments and retain/recognition are important factors.
Learners are motivated by teachers so teachers should be motivated in order to transmit it to learners. Apart from sufficient pre-service and in-service training, capacity building and refresher courses provision; the availability of required teaching and learning materials in one hand build teachers' morale and motivate them. Struggle in finding teaching-learning for themselves, shortage of books and other supportive materials de-motivate teachers and encourage insufficient teaching and rote learning. Ibid (1979) remarked that someone can get easily distracted from the task at hand and become more motivated to do something else perhaps not on task.
Teachers need laboratory with recommended equipments to prepare and demonstrate practical and laboratory technician an assistant. In the past when schools were few, a science teacher needed to have a laboratory to work in and there were also a laboratory technician to work together (Guardian, 2009). Laboratory is compulsory for science subjects; there is no way, without their availability. But these days in some schools even science teachers do not have laboratories to conduct experiments and there is no laboratory technician to help the teacher.
Teaching environment improvements include housing water and sanitation. Research has shown that many teachers do not have houses, and those who do live in houses that are often in serious need of repair and most schools are in very poor physical environment. The challenges of school improvement in rural areas are associated with the presence of teachers, but many rural schools in Tanzania like other countries "serve disadvantaged populations, have great difficulty attracting and retaining qualified teachers and have management systems poorly adapted to their small size"(ADEA, 2006)
Pay reform to adequate salary in the other hand settle psychological and physical unrest of teachers and motivate them concentrate in their work accordingly. Teachers' low payment is a burning issue and recently caused periodic strikes. In most of developing countries including Tanzania, teachers' wages were considerably below the level necessary to ensure their adequate motivation (Fry, 2003). The government should revise teachers' pay reform and come up with solution otherwise academic fraud might emerge or persist. When teachers sell grades or require students to pay for private tutoring, most observers recognize it as corruption. But it is tolerated because everyone understands that it is necessary to survive (Fontana, 2008). Their practices may be interpreted by some as a reasonable adaptive response to a difficult situation. In some instances it is even tolerated by government, which sees it as the only way to maintain the number of teachers and the quality of teaching.
There is a need to train and retain enough teachers. Learning is a process of interaction between teachers and students as they both participate in the learning process, but with more weight given to teachers to show the way, for recommended number of learners in the class. Learning achievements can mainly "be determined in classroom by motivated teachers who plan for teaching, put into practice what they have learned" (ADEA, 2006). But teachers' motivation is critically ignored factor in all levels of policy choices including crowded classes (Ndawi, 1997). Motivation of teachers helps to retain them at their work places and it includes "materials and psychological needs" as pay on its own does not increase motivation among teachers; however pecuniary motives are likely to be dominant among teachers in less developed countries. In SSA, teachers' motivation is low and it has been detrimental to the quality of education" (Fry, 2003).
In motivating learners, as the third strategy, emphasis should be applied in approaches such as demonstration, case study and problem based learning. Their introduction or if have been introduced, could aim at increasing the students' interests in learning science subjects. Also a useful method of concept mapping would be given for assessment, particularly for the development of the students' self-directed learning skills and lifelong learning skills.
Demonstration as one of the approaches is very useful in arousing interest. According to Lagowski (1990) students retain 10% of what they read, 26% of what they hear, 30% of what they see, 50% of what they see and hear, 70% of what they say, and 90% of something they say as they do something. So if teachers show as many demonstrations as they can to the students as well as letting the students do demonstrations by themselves, students will learn more actively and effectively. Students also need more positive and realistic demonstrations of the scope and limitations of science and scientists.
Science historical stories are one of the methods which can be used elsewhere even in remote areas and is costless. According to Huo (2006) the development of science and technology can not be separated from the contributions of past scientists. The science stories will inspire students to overcome the difficulties and to gain success. So giving the relevant story will spark the students' inner-motivation. Only with inner-motivation will the students show their initiative and creative abilities in their learning and working processes. For instance 'Newton becomes a professor at the age of 25 years in Glasgow University and lately he formulated the law of gravitational force'.
Multimedia technology approach can be applied in areas where it allows. Although it is expensive and it requires power availability for schools that can afford is also recommended. With the development of computer technology multimedia methods are been increasingly used in teaching practice. A multimedia course can combine sound and pictures with knowledge. This reinforces the fact that students retain 50% of what they see and hear, as the use of multimedia technology gives students more information than just writing on the blackboard, and increase the chance of active learning (ibid). But on the other hand it can also makes a more boring lecture for the students, if too much useless information is given or if, when using the projector, the light in the classroom is too dim. To avoid these disadvantages the teacher can combine it with other strategies and gives students more opportunity to think and ask questions.
Case study is another interesting teaching-learning approach and also costless. Science is very relevant to our real life. It would be worthwhile to find some real cases before the teacher gives a lecture. When students find that what they will learn is useful to the society, they will be active learners (Lagowski, 1990). Case studies are capable of being delivered with a range of styles, they can be designed to complement (not replace) other teaching approaches, and focus on re-visiting topics rather than attempting to cover an entire syllabus. In addition, the contexts and delivery styles can be selected in order to be stimulating. It is crucial, therefore, to highlight the importance of science and its relevance to students' lives.
Problem-based learning (PBL) is a pedagogical approach based on recent advances in cognitive science research on human learning (Barrows, 1985). PBL has been widely used in undergraduate settings in Western countries but there is very little published on the application of PBL in science education in developing countries like Tanzania. A PBL class is organized around collaborative problem solving activities that provide a context for learning and discovery. The responsibility for learning is with the student; not with the facilitator. There are five well-defined stages in the PBL process: introduction, inquiry, self-directed study, revisiting the hypotheses, and self-evaluation (Ram 1999). This approach can be introduced in higher learning institutions although it is expensive, its return to education is more important.
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College Planning: 5 Great Tips to Find College Scholarships

Finding scholarships for college is a subject that seems to be high on the list when it comes to college planning. Most families know that in order to pay for college, they are going to need a combination of financial aid, work-study, and scholarships. Too many families believe that college scholarships are only for students with outstanding grades and test scores, or those who are talented athletes or musicians. You may think you are just an ordinary student, but chances are there are some scholarships that could be a good fit for you.
College scholarships are basically free college money. It takes time to find them, do the essays that may be required, assemble the necessary documents, and meet the deadlines, but it is worth the effort. If may not be a large amount of money, but $500 can help pay for books or other expenses.
Contact the financial aid office at the colleges you hope to attend to see what scholarships are available. Some schools automatically consider you for a scholarship once you have applied. Others have a list of scholarships for which you can apply that can be used toward your college tuition. Many of these scholarships are merit based, but there are also some for leadership and community service.
Every high school should have a list of scholarships available to students who are graduating and going onto college. Sometimes this list is posted on their website. Check through the list and see whether you meet any of the eligibility requirements. Also pay attention to what is required and when the deadlines are. Check to see whether clubs you belong to in high school like FBLA or DECA offer awards. Some scholarships may require a teacher recommendation and others may need someone, like your principal, to recommend you.
There are some good scholarship searches on the internet that are worth signing up for. They are reliable and will provide the names of scholarships that could apply to you. Usually, you will need to fill out information about your academics, interests, career plans, talents, and anything that makes you unique as a college applicant. A few searches that I recommend are: Fast web, Broke Scholar, and Scholarships 360. Don't be lured in by a scholarship scam.
Do you have a parent who works for an employer who provides college scholarships? For example, any student who is a dependent of an agent, associate, or retiree of one insurance company may quality to receive an award ranging from $3,000 to $8,000. Are you a member or do you know of a member of the local Rotary Club, Elks, Kiwanis or other civic organizations? Do you have a religious affiliation that could provide some help?
If you have a specific major in mind, you may find some scholarships that are for engineers only, for example. If you are a minority, look for scholarships for Hispanic, Native American or Black students. If you are a teen who owns or operates your own business, you may qualify for an entrepreneurial scholarship. If you have been passionate about community service, there are many opportunities to find some free money for college.

Technical Writing - What is "Variance" and How Can a Technical Writer Eliminate it in Documents?

"Variance" is an important term in statistics and plays a crucial role in technical documentation as well. Without getting too technical about it: "variance" denotes the way the values of a set of elements vary around a central mean value.
Imagine you weighing a hundred marbles. Let's say the arithmetic-mean weight of an "average" marble is 10 ounces. But some weigh 10.1 ounces, some 9.8, some others 9.5 and 11.3, etc. You get the picture.
The "average degree" to which any given marble differs from that central value of "10 ounces" is called "variance" and is closely related to the statistical concept of "standard deviation." In short, "variance" is a measure of the extent to which the individual elements of a set are identical. "Zero variance" means all elements in a group are exactly alike.
In manufacturing, "zero variance" is a highly coveted but impossible goal because it means there are no manufacturing defects.
In technical documentation "zero variance" is equally desirable in this sense: there should be no syntax, vocabulary and style "variations" in your manuals. Why? Because a technical text that varies in syntax, vocabulary and style from page to page confuses the readers and fails to instill confidence.
You should have "zero variance" in your vocabulary. If you have used the term "LAN" on the first page, you should not switch to "local network" on page 10.
If you have used a Figure Caption AFTER Figure 1, you should not use it BEFORE Figures 2, 3 and 4.
If you have used "Arial 14 Points" for Header 1 on page 1, the Header 1 on page 56 should not have "Times New Roman 18 Points" font.
If the First Page template in Chapter 1 has a 1.5 inch left margin, every Chapter First Page should also have a 1.5 inch left margin.
You should aim for "zero variance" in your icons, table formatting, bullets, they way you use active and passive voice, and other style elements. "Zero variance" is one of the important features that make technical writing predictable, trustworthy and easy to follow. That should be a goal in every technical documentation project you tackle.

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